Am tuning up a working paper--"Ideology, Cognitive Reflection, & Motivated Reasoning" -- that reports experiment results relating to "ideological symmetry" of motivated cognition as well as the relationship between motivated cognition & dual-process reasoning theories. Probably post in day or 2 or 3...
But here's a piece of the paper. It comes out of the methods section & addresses issues relating to design for motivated-reasoning experiments:
Testing for vulnerability to motivated reasoning is not straightforward. Simply asking individuals whether they would change their mind if shown contrary evidence, e.g., is inconclusive, because motivated reasoning is unconscious and thus not reliably observed or checked through introspection.
Nor is it satisfactory simply to measure reasoning dispositions or styles—whether by an objective performance test, such as CRT, or by a subjective self-evaluation one, like Need For Cognition. None of these tests has been validated as a predictor of motivated cognition. Indeed, early work in dual-process reasoning theory—research predating Kahneman’s “System 1”/&